Whatever high technologies are invented today, but the basis of human activity is still agriculture, which produces foodstuffs, which is why innovations in this industry are constantly being introduced, allowing to significantly increase productivity per hectare. Irrigation system of agriculture has a very long history and has already proved its existence six thousand years before Christ, and although today there are modern technical solutions that greatly facilitate human labor, the principle itself has remained unchanged.
Development and types of irrigation systems
Irrigation itself – means artificial irrigation of agricultural plantations, which is especially often found in those climatic zones where natural precipitation is rather low. At the dawn of their existence, these were primitive systems of irrigation canals fed from natural sources of moisture, and therefore located in the valleys of rivers or receiving water from mountain springs, the latter circumstance has particularly contributed to the fact that irrigation was widely used and applied in Asia.
Currently, irrigation systems of agriculture can be found in South Asia, South America, Spain and even in the Sahara Desert. There are no standard solutions for irrigation and climatic conditions, as well as zonal differences affect the organization of water intake, the principle of construction of canals, the type of devices used, etc.
The following types of irrigation systems are distinguished:
Flood irrigation systems prevail on flat lands;
Terrace irrigation is used in mountainous areas with steep mountain slopes and is characterized by a complex irrigation system;
Spring and temporary rainwater irrigation is the most primitive, but still the most common method among some pastoralists;
Modern irrigation systems
In today’s environment, the availability of irrigation is essential to achieve consistently high results. It is the irrigation system that allows turning the agricultural business from a risky activity into a regular income generating one.
Regardless of the whims of the weather, growing crops is equally successful, no matter how often it rains. Modern irrigation system in agriculture is not just a water supply, but also its careful dosing, because for the plant equally harmful as a lack of moisture, and its excess, which eventually will lead to the same loss of yield.
When equipping the farm with an irrigation system, the type of crop being grown is taken into account first of all. For melons, cucumbers, eggplants, tomatoes it is preferable to use drip irrigation, especially since it helps to save water.
However, as practice shows, this is not always the ideal option. The high level of installation and disassembly time, as well as the fragility of the structure, which requires an annual investment of at least half the cost of the entire system, suggests that these factors should also be taken into account when choosing the irrigation method.
Long-term drip systems have been used for gardening, but in the case of carrots, beetroot, potatoes and onions, the irrigation system for this type of farming does not limit the grower to just the drip method, as these crops are equally well suited to sprinkling.
Modern irrigation takes into account not only the type of crops grown, but also cereals, which also show good results from artificial irrigation.